That the weather in your area affects your roof is not a new fact; rain, hail, snow, and excessive heat can all wear down -- or outright damage -- the roofing materials you have. Many people choose new roofs based on the immediate threats the roof faces. For example, someone in an area known for excessive heat but not hail may choose semicircular tiles; someone else in an area known for large hail might go with an insulated metal roof. But another weather factor that you need to pay attention to if you're replacing your roof: sudden changes from one type of weather to another.
Drastic Changes Over the Long-Term
Roofing materials deal with weather changes in their own ways, but overall, in the long term, those changes all serve to wear down each and every type of roofing material. Cold fronts that drop hot, humid weather into below-freezing temperature ranges; warm spells that bring triple-digit temperatures only to be countered by much cooler onshore flow at the coast -- and then back into the triple digits as another warm spell occurs; and strong winds that slowly erode roof material over the years all show evidence of their powers after several years. When choosing a roofing material, choose one that will remain better preserved in the face of how rapidly and drastically the weather can change in your area.
Another issue is climate change itself. No matter what or who you think is causing it, the climate is definitely changing, which means more heat waves, more intense heat waves, more intense polar vortices, bigger hail, and so on. Whatever roof material you choose has to be something that, should it encounter one of these problems, will either stay in good shape or be very easy to repair.
New System Installations
On a much more benign note, consider whether there might be changes you want to make to the roof due to the weather. If you think you might want a solar panel system, choose a roofing material that can accept the connections needed to stabilize the panels (or tell the roofers so that they can make certain areas of the roof more easily accessible and connectable).
Roofing material has to last a long time. Even the really inexpensive roofing material, such as asphalt paper, needs to offer protection for your house through thick and thin. Talk to roofers about which materials hold up better given major changes in the long-term climate and which are easier to repair. For more information, contact companies like The Roof Doctor.